Glossary of technical terms


Term Description
Affination Production of a magma by mixing sugar with syrup and then centrifuging the magma with or without washing
Affined sugar Sugar purified by affination
After product sugar Sugar of the final crystallization stage
Alkalinity In the product streams of a beet sugar factory, the result of a titration with standardized acid solution to a phenolphthalein endpoint or equivalent pH, expressed as g CaO per 100 ml
Ash content The solid residue left after incineration in the presence of oxygen (crude ash, carbonate ash). In analysis of sugar products, sulfuric acid is added to the sample, and this residue as sulfated ash heated to 800 °C is taken to be a measure of the inorganic constituents. Sometimes determined indirectly by measure of the electrical conductivity of solutions of the products.
Beet Sugar beet root, botanically the thick main root with hypocotyl in which sugar is stored
Beet brei Beet sample prepared for analysis in the form of fine particles
Beet clamp Stack of stored beet
Beet flume Concrete-lined ditch or metal trough designed for the hydraulic transport of beet
Beet knife Rectangular piece of steel designed to slice beet into cossettes
Beet pile Store of beet in suitably prepared areas of the factory yard
Beet pump Special centrifugal pump used to lift beet and water
Beet rasp, beet saw Devices to obtain beet brei from beet samples
Beet sampler Scooping device to collect beet samples
Beet saw, beet saw Devices to obtain beet brei from beet samples
Beet tail Elongated lower part of the beet
Beet tare Earth and other materials brought with the beet to the factory
Beet tops Beet leaves and petioles, which may or may not be accompanied by crowns or pieces of crowns that are removed in the field at the time of harvest
Beet washer Installation for cleaning beet (e.g. jet washer, revolving-arm washer, drum washer, cyclone washer)
Beet washing Process for cleaning beet
Bolter Beet plant flowering and going to seed in its first year
Candy crystals Large sugar crystals produced by a special crystallization process
Carbonation Introduction of carbon dioxide gas into limed juice or syrup (e.g., first and second carbonation)
Carbonation gas Gas rich in carbon dioxide for use in carbonation
Carbonation lime Carbonation slurry after concentration with filter presses to about 70% DS
Carbonation sludge Carbonation slurry after concentration with vacuum filters to 4550 % DS
Carbonation slurry Turbid liquid consisting of juice and carbonation precipitate (e.g. 1st carbonationslurry, 2nd carbonation slurry)
Carbonation slurry concentrate Carbonation slurry after concentration with thickening filters or decanters
Clarifier Apparatus for the elimination by sedimentation of suspended solids from a turbid liquid
Color Attenuation index, determined under defined conditions.According to ICUMSA the color is measured at 420 nm and given in ICUMSA units (IU). Most of data given in this book contain the index 420 or 560 for the wavelength, which is not in accordance with ICUMSA recommendations.
Color type Result of the visual assessment of white sugar against standards
Condenser water Mixture of condensate and cooling water produced by a direct-contact condenser
Conglomerate Intergrown cluster of several crystals
Cooling crystallization Crystallization by cooling of the magma
Cooling crystallization effect Difference in the purity of the mother liquor of the magma at the beginning and end of the crystallization by cooling
Cooling crystallizer Vessel for crystallization by cooling
Cossette scalder Component of extraction plant, where
Cossettes Beet slices produced by a beet slicer
Crystal content Proportion by mass of crystals in the magma
Crystal growth rate Increase in crystal mass in relation to time and surface
Crystallizate Crystal fraction obtained by crystallization
Crystallization Nucleation and growth of crystals
Crystallization rate Crystal mass produced per time unit
Crystallization scheme Defines the number of crystallization stages
Crystallization vapor Vapor created in evaporating crystallization
Cycle time (a) In batch evaporating crystallization: time from start of drawing in a charge to the beginning of the next (b) In centrifuging: time from start of loading the centrifugal to the beginning of the next charge
Defeco-carbonation Process step in juice purification in which the juice is simultaneously brought into contact with lime and carbon dioxide
Denaturation Deliberate alteration of beet cells, often by heat, in preparation for extraction
Deteriorated beet Beet of reduced suitability for processing due to external causes, e.g. frost
Dried pulp Pulp, which has been dried and sometimes pelleted
Dried sugar beet cossettes Commercial term for dried (including pressed) cossettes from which no sugar has been extracted
Dry substance In most cases moisture-free substance
Entrainment separator Apparatus for removing syrup or magma from vapor
Evaporating crystallization Crystallization by evaporation of the solvent
Evaporating crystallization effect Difference between the purity of the magma and the purity of the mother liquor of the magma on discharge
Evaporating crystallization process Process of evaporating crystallization. Batch: from opening of the feed valve to discharge of the massecuite
Evaporating crystallizer Apparatus for crystallization by evaporation
Evaporator effect Evaporator(s) operating at a given steam pressure (e.g. first effect, second effect). Condensates and vapors are labelled correspondingly (e.g. first condensate or vapor:condensate or vapor from the first effect)
Exhausted cossettes Cossettes leaving the extraction plant
Extraction Process of obtaining juice from sugar beet or sugar cane; the term diffusion should be used only for the physico-chemical process
Extraction fresh water Water introduced into the extraction plant in addition to press water
Extraction losses Quantity of sugar entered but not contained in the raw juice as a percentage of the beet or cane mass
False grain Undesirable small crystals
Fanged beet Beet with multiple tap roots
Feed syrup Supply syrup for crystallization
Flume water Water used to transport beet
Green run-off (syrup) First syrup produced on centrifuging a magma
Injection water Water for jet condenser
Invert sugar Mixture of (close to) equal parts of glucose and fructose resulting from the hydrolysis of sucrose (inversion)
Juice purification Partial removal of nonsugar substances from the raw juice while producing a thin juice
Knife block Box-like device used to hold a number of knives in the disk or drum of a slicing machine
Liming Process step in juice purification in which quicklime or milk of lime is introduced into the juice (also preliming, main liming, intermediate liming before 2nd carbonation)
Magma Mixture of crystals and syrup
Massecuite Magma in evaporating or cooling crystallizer, mixer or centrifugal
Mixer Apparatus to distribute magma to the centrifugals
Molassed dried pulp Commercial term for a mixture of dried pressed pulp and molasses
Molasses The sugar-bearing product of the sugar end whose purity has been reduced to the point that further crystallization of sugar is not economical feasible without special treatment of molasses (chapter 17)
Monogerm seed Genetically single-germ seed
Mush content Portion of cossettes less than 1 cm long
Nonsucrose Substances contained in raw material and ist products except sucrose and water
Nonsucrose content Difference between dry substance content and its sucrose content
Nonsugar Common overall term for substances contained in the raw materials and products of the sugar industry except sucrose (sugar) and water
Nonsugar content Difference between dry substance content and sugar content in the meaning of Sugar content (a) and (b) (q.v.)
Nucleation Generation and development of small crystals capable of growth
Pelleted seed Beet seed brought to uniform size by coating
Piled beet Stored beet (as distinct from freshly harvested beet)
Polarization Term customarily used in sugar analysis for the optical rotation of a sugar industry product, measured under the same conditions
Precision seed Monogerm seed produced from multi-germ seed by rubbing and grading
Preparation index Percentage ratio of dry substance in ruptured cells to total dry substance in cane
Press water Liquid effluent from the pulp presses
Press water pulp Particles of exhausted cossettes contained in the press water
Pressed pulp Pressed, exhausted cossettes, leaving the pulp presses
Processed seed Beet seed brought to a uniform size by mechanical treatment and screening
Purity Sugar content as percent of dry substance content
Raw juice Juice obtained from beet or cane after extraction, pressing or milling
Raw juice draft Mass of juice drawn from the extraction plant as percent of mass of cossettes introduced
Recoverable sugar Part of the sugar in beet, which can be obtained as white sugar in % on beet
Refining Purification of sugar through recrystallizing and chemical and physical methods
Remelt syrup Solution of washed or affined sugar
Run-off (syrup) General term for syrups produced on centrifuging a magma
Sand separator Apparatus which separates sand and earth from a liquid stream, such as raw juice, press water, or flume water
Seed magma Suspension of crystals as the basis for controlled crystal growth
Seeding (a) Mechanical or thermal intervention with the aim of inducing nucleation (b) Introduction of a finite number of crystal fragments in form of a slurry for crystal growth
Silin number Length in meters of 100 grams of cossettes
Single-germ seed General term for precision and monogerm seed
Slicer (beet) Machine designed to hold knives in knife blocks to produce cossettes
Sludge transport water Water for the hydraulic transport of carbonation sludge or beet soil
Soil separator Equipment for the mechanical separation of soil from beet
Stone separator Equipment for the mechanical separation of stones or rocks from beet
Sucrose Common term for the disaccharide α-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-fructofuranoside
Sucrose content See: Sugar content
Sugar Term for the disaccharide sucrose and products of the sugar industry essentially composed of sucrose
Sugar content (a) Sucrose content
Sugar content (b) Total sugar content
Sugar content (c) Recoverable sugar
Sulfitation Introduction of sulfur dioxide to juice
Supersaturation coefficient Quotient formed by dividing the sugar/water ratio of a supersaturated solution by the sugar/water ratio of a saturated solution under the same conditions (temperature and purity or nonsugar/water ratio)
Supersaturation, critical Supersaturation at which nucleation begins spontaneously
Swedish number Ratio of the mass of cossettes longer than 5 cm to those shorter than 1 cm
Syrup General term for sugar solutions of higher concentration
Tailings separator Apparatus for the ballistic separation of tails (beet particulate material) from trash
Thick juice Concentrated juice following evaporation
Thickening filter Apparatus for concentrating the sediment in carbonation slurry by filtering
Thin juice Evaporator supply juice which may have been delimed or sulfitated
Top tare The part of the beet to which the petioles are attached; botanical the epicotyl
Topping (a) Separation of the beet tops (b) Removing part of the cane stalk above natural breaking point
Transport water Water used to transport beet
Trash separator Device for the removal of vegetable matter floating in flume and wash water
Ventilation of stored beet Introduction of air current in order to maintain desired storage temperature
Wash run-off (syrup) Syrup produced in washing sugar during centrifuging
Washing Washing of the crystals during centrifuging with syrup, water or steam
Washing off Unloading of beet by water jet