Technological aspects of the beet yard operation

Jan Maarten de Bruijn

The beet yard operation comprises the handling of sugar beets after they are received on site up to the beet hopper. It is not intended here to present a detailed description of all the individual steps involved, but rather to focus on the main technological objectives of the beet yard operation: sufficient removal of soil from the beets while limiting the associated (unavoidable) sugar loss as much as possible. Parameters considered are: – Washing requirements for beets from heavy (clay) soil versus beets with easy to remove light (sandy) soil; – On site beet storage, as well as dry or wet beet intake; – Sugar losses in different steps of beet washing and impact of retention time; – Residual soil adhering to the beets after washing and HCl-insoluble ash in pulp.

2020 (145) 214-219
Language: E

Effects of improved beet quality in recent decades on juice purification in Dutch factories

Tim I.M. Grootscholten; Jan L.M. Struijs

Recently, Suiker Unie increased the daily beet slicing rates of her Dutch factories. To anticipate the effects of capacity expansion on juice purification, Suiker Unie analysed relevant juice purification literature and internal experiences in advance including the effects of improved beet quality over recent decades. The improved beet quality allowed smaller investments in juice purification than expected in literature findings only. The integrated analyses of beet quality in relation to juice purification supported by the results of the first campaigns at increased beet slicing rates are presented.

2020 (145) 220-223
Language: E

Concentration in the Czech and Polish sugar markets

Pavel Kotyza; Luboš Smutka; Karolina Pawlak; Andrzej Hornowski

In Central and Eastern Europe countries, the sugar industry has undergone a number of structural changes in the post-communist era, especially after accession into the EU in 2004, which implemented a sugar market reform in 2006 and then ended the sugar quota system in 2017. From a long-term perspective, EU sugar industry is undergoing a rapid development – increasing productivity, rising concentration as well as changes in market and regulated environments. For the Polish and Czech sugar industry, changes in the industry concentration can be identified by analysing the development of beet areas, quotas, beet yields, revenues and profits of the sugar industry players. This helps to better define the position of the sugar industry in the whole value chain in Poland and in the Czech Republic. It was noted that the position of the Czech sugar factories in the value chain has increased significantly. In Poland, market concentration at the level of sugar factories has remained stable.

2020 (145) 224-233
Language: E

Causes and effects of the occurrence of “Syndrome des basses richesses” in German sugar beet growing areas

René Pfitzer; Klaus Schrameyer; Ralf T. Voegele; Johann Maier; Christian Lang; Mark Varrelmann

“Syndrome des basses richesses” (SBR) is a sugar beet disease, which primarily leads to the reduction of sugar content and yield and thus to large economic losses. Two non culturable and vector transmitted pathogens, a proteobacterium („Candidatus Arsenophonus phytopathogenicus“) as well as a phytoplasma (“Candidatus Phytoplasma solani“) can cause SBR. SBR symptoms include chlorosis and necrosis of older leaves, necrosis of the vascular tissues of the beet and asymmetries of younger leaves. In 2018, it was shown that in addition to France Pentastiridius leporinus (L., 1761) it is the most important vector in Baden-Württemberg. This species has adapted from its natural host (reed) to the agricultural crop rotation of sugar beet and winter wheat. In 2018, P.leporinus was the most commonly caught Auchenorrhyncha species in sugar beet and 44% were loaded with the proteobacterium. The longest flight pattern of P. leporinus in sugar beet (from May 25th to September 5th) was detected. The first proof of a second generation led to the long flight pattern of this species. This article presents the development of the area of infestation and the proof of the two pathogens until 2018. In addition, previous findings as well as own results for the dissemination and control of SBR at Baden-Württemberg in 2018 are presented. Differences in susceptibility of sugar beet varieties were shown for the first time. One specific genotype showed no reduction in sugar content despite SBR infection. Variety selection could thus be a promising approach to control SBR in sugar beet.

2020 (145) 234-244
Language: D

Einfluss von Fungizidstrategie und Sorte auf die Entwicklung der Cercospora-Blattfleckenkrankheit in Zuckerrüben

Daniel Laufer; Christine Kenter; Erwin Ladewig

Die Cercospora-Blattfleckenkrankheit gewinnt in Deutschland zunehmend an Bedeutung, gleichzeitig verlieren vorhandene Fungizide an Wirksamkeit. Daher müssen effiziente Bekämpfungsstrategien entwickelt werden, um die Erträge zu stabilisieren und die weitere Verbreitung von Resistenzen einzudämmen. In insgesamt acht Feldversuchen wurde 2017 und 2018 die Wirksamkeit von vier Fungizidstrategien auf den Cercospora-Befall einer anfälligen und einer toleranten Zuckerrübensorte geprüft. Alle Fungizidstrategien reduzierten den Befall in allen Umwelten. Bei moderatem Befall war diese Reduktion insbesondere bei der toleranten Sorte nicht immer ertragswirksam. Ferner erreichte die tolerante Sorte die Schwelle für die zweite bzw. dritte Fungizidapplikation um bis zu drei Wochen später als die anfällige Sorte. Bei stärkerem bis extremem Befall zeigten die Fungizidstrategien, die neben Triazolen und Thiophanat-methyl zusätzlich ein Kontaktfungizid enthielten, eine verbesserte Wirkung auf den Befall und den Bereinigten Zuckerertrag. Sowohl tolerante Sorten, als auch die nur für Notfallsituationen zugelassenen Kontaktfungizide können aktuell zum Resistenzmanagement von Cercospora beticola beitragen.

2020 (145) 172-182
Language: E

Benchmarking and improving sugar recovery from final molasses

Ross Broadfoot

The sucrose loss in final molasses in raw sugar manufacture is the largest loss. One factor that typically limits the extent of sucrose recovery from final molasses is that cooling crystallizers are high capital and maintenance cost items. The target purity of the final molasses is the commonly used benchmark to assess the effectiveness of exhaustion of final molasses. However, this benchmark does not relate to an actual loss of sucrose. A benchmark that calculates the Target Sucrose Loss (TSL) in molasses for the factory is proposed. Factories would aim to maintain the sucrose loss in final molasses to within 1 unit of the TSL. A close approach to the target purity is still required as part of the drive to achieve this result. An advantage of the TSL is that it considers the influence of the quantity of soluble impurities in the cane supply on the actual sucrose loss in molasses. Data from Australian factories are presented to demonstrate the application of the TSL. Several factors affecting the exhaustion of final molasses are discussed, including the effects of Cmassecuite purity, crystallizer station performance and shear rate on the massecuite within the crystallizers. Some Australian factories have recently refurbished horizontal, rotating coil crystallizers with designs incorporating fixed cooling elements and rotating paddles to provide high shear rate conditions and overcome maintenance issues associated with the coil design. Experience shows that the fixed-element design is an economical way to provide strong exhaustion performance.

2020 (145) 166-171
Language: E

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