On January 11, 1799, Franz Carl Achard approached the Prussian King Frederick William III and informed him that he was able to produce sugar from beet. The communication was accompanied by a treatise “Ueber die Bereitung des Zuckers aus der Runkel-Rübe” (On the preparation of sugar from beet), in which he explained in twenty paragraphs how to cultivate beet and establish sugar production.
What the king received in his hands was the birth certificate of the beet sugar industry......
In Réunion, changes in harvesting practices have led to increased amounts of sugarcane tops and leaves delivered to factories. To anticipate the changes in sugar recovery processing, laboratory trials were undertaken. Samples with known quantities of tops or green leaves were prepared and cane processing was simulated at laboratory scale: juice extraction, clarification and evaporation with operating parameters similar to those in the factory. Juice and syrup were collected and analyzed for sugar quality parameters, as well as parameters that impact sugar recovery or processing quality: ash and reducing sugars contents were monitored to estimate the sucrose loss to molasses, while calcium, phosphate and oxalate contents were monitored to evaluate the risk of fouling in evaporator. Results highlight a degradation of juice composition with increasing quantities of tops and leaves, an increase in lime consumption, and color. An increase in residual calcium in syrup was observed thus increasing the risk of evaporator fouling. The mixed juice, clear juice and syrup qualities declined in the same proportion and the composition of the juice did not get worse with juice treatment.
A few years ago, the Ledesma sugar company (Argentina) started an investment process with the aim of increasing the milling capacity from 14,000 to 24,000t/d (tonnes cane/day). The sugar plant began to install plate heat exchangers and plate evaporators as an alternative to the traditional tubular equipment. Information was collected on the installation, operation and maintenance parameters during more than 15 years, during both the harvesting and off-season. Some of the results obtained in comparison with tubular equipment and with data for plate equipment in the literature were:
Heaters: heat transfer coefficients similar to those quoted in the literature for heating limed juice and 80% higher for clarified juice heating, shorter cleaning time (8–10h reduced to 4h), shorter maintenance times but higher costs in spare parts than expected;
Evaporators: 15–30% higher heat transfer coefficients, 30–40% higher specific evaporation rates, shorter cleaning times (18–24h reduced to 5h), 20% less surface area per t/d, but higher cost of spare parts than expected.
Muhammad Aslam Rajput; Rehana Naz Syed; Fahad Nazir Khoso; Muhammad Ali Khanzada; Imtiaz Ahmed Khan; Abdul Mubeen Lodhi
Whip smut is one of the most prevalent diseases in almost all sugarcane growing regions of the world. To find out the quantitative losses to sugarcane caused by Sporisorium scitamineum, trials were conducted during the crop season 2014/15 and 2015/16 at sugarcane section, Agriculture Research Institute Tandojam, Pakistan. A total of 104 cultivars of different origins were grown in split plot design with 6 replications. A significant reduction in cane height by 34.33%, cane girth by 18.26%, millable canes by 28.87% and yield per hectare by 41.61% was observed. The most susceptible cultivar was CP-29-120, whereas, the most immune and productive variety was Hoth-318 with the mean yield of 153.33±0.75t/ha. The statistical analysis results showed highly significant (P=0.000) impact of disease incidence on different cultivars. In the light of results obtained from the study, it can be concluded that smut disease can cause high reduction in all the quantitative parameters especially in millable canes and yield.